Donna M. Papsun MS1
Sherri L. Kacinko, PhD1
Frederick G. Strathmann, PhD, MBA1
Barry K. Logan, PhD1,2


1. NMS Labs, Horsham, PA, USA
2. The Center for Forensic Research and Education, Willow Grove, PA, USA


  • Hundreds of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) of all different classes have reached the recreational drug market since 2012
  • Challenging for laboratories to identify NPS and subsequently develop toxicological testing capabilities
  • Drug supply and availability, geographical and population influences, and drug control actions such as legislation ultimately affect the life span of any one substance, which is typically transient in nature
  • Translates to rapid changes in drug positivity, which may outpace availability of toxicological testing

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